转移 MySQL 的数据(datadir) - Jacky Liu's Blog

转移 MySQL 的数据(datadir)

Jacky Liu posted @ 2010年9月27日 09:11 in MySQL with tags mysql datadir 转移 数据 , 5200 阅读

---- 开始看 MySQL 不久。还没做任何实际操作之前,就想把它默认的存储数据库文件的目录从 "/var/lib/mysql" 搬到 "/home" 自己的目录下面。一般来说,需要转移 MySQL 数据目录的原因可以有很多,比较典型的是因为原来的硬盘不够大。不过对我来讲没那么复杂,主要是因为想把关键文件都放一起,这样下次系统崩溃的时候比较容易把文件倒出来。

---- 这个并不复杂的问题差不多折腾了一整天。其实关键就下面几点:

    1. 找到 mysql 启动时加载的 Option File(如果有多个,那么一定是起作用的那一个)。在我的机器上只有一个,是 "/etc/mysql/my.cnf",进去把 datadir 一项的值改成自己指定的目录。这个不难。

    2. 最关键的,把原先的数据目录(默认是 "/var/lib/mysql")里面的东西都转移到新的目录下,而且 !一定! 要保证相关的内容在新的目录下仍然保持跟原来一样的用户和权限设置。用 chown 和 chmod 就能搞定,很简单。但是如果这步出了差错,找起来就麻烦了,重新启动 mysql 的时候只会说连不上,很难发现真正的原因。我是通过 Ubuntu 下的 Package Manager 安装的 MySQL,安装之后相关文件和目录的 user name 和 group name 都是 “mysql”,所以新的 datadir 也要将 owner 设成 mysql,并确保它有合适的权限。

    3. 不仅要保证 datadir 的用户/权限设置正确,如果 datadir 目录比较深的话,好像跟上面几级目录的权限也有关系。总之,要保证用户 “mysql” 能顺利地访问新的 datadir 的内容,而且要保证所有必要的内容都已被复制到新的 datadir 下面。在 MySQL 里面,像用户记录这种启动时必需的信息也是以数据库形式保存的,mysql 在启动时会加载这些必需的 database,如果相关目录的权限有问题,或者文件根本不存在,都会启动失败。

    4. 关于 AppArmor,网上资料说需要把所做的改动通过 profile 文件告诉它,否则 AppArmor 会阻止 mysql 访问新的文件路径而导致 mysql 不能运行。以我的经验来看,好像没感觉到 AppArmor 的影响。不过保险起见,还是按照网上说的,修改一下它的 profile 文件,在我的机器上是: "/etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.mysqld",照着原先 datadir 有关内容的格式,新加几行:

        /my/new/datadir/ r,
        /my/new/datadir/** rwk,

    5. AppArmor 和 mysql 都需要重启。重启的命令是:
       
        sudo /etc/init.d/{apparmor|mysql} stop
        sudo /etc/init.d/{apparmor|mysql} start

    或者用 service 命令也可以:

        sudo service {apparmor|mysql} stop
        sudo service {apparmor|mysql} start

---- TroubleShooting:

    mysql 的 Error log 文件,在我的机器上是: "/var/log/mysql/error.log",如果出了问题,这里记录的是真正的原因。对于终端里的几行输出不用太在意,基本上无论出什么事都只会说连不上 Server,没什么用。
 

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